(based on STC Kit)
Chemicals are all around us. They have properties that can be identified through the use of simple tests. We can learn about chemicals by adding water, heat or cool to them. We can also observe changes in chemicals as they interact with other chemicals. Chemicals can be acidic, basic, or neutral. We use chemicals every day. Everything is made of chemicals.
SCIENCE STANDARDS AND INDICATORS
Content Standard 3.1: Materials have properties that can be identified and described through the use of simple tests.
B.1. Sort and classify materials based on properties such as dissolving in water, sinking and floating, conducting heat, and attracting to magnets.
B.2. Describe the effect of heating on melting, evaporation, condensation and freezing of water.
SCIENCE INQUIRY: Scientific inquiry is a thoughtful and coordinated attempt to search out describe, explain and predict natural phenomena.
SCIENCE LITERACY: Science literacy includes speaking listening, presenting, interpreting, reading and writing about science.
SCIENCE NUMERACY: Mathematics provides useful tool for the description, analysis and presentation of scientific data and ideas.
BINQ.1 Make observations and ask questions about objects, organisms and the environment.
BINQ.3 Design and conduct simple investigations.
BINQ.4 Employ simple equipment and measuring tools to gather data and extend the senses.
BINQ.6 Analyze, critique and communicate investigations using words, graphs and drawings.
BINQ.9 Use mathematics to analyze, interpret and present data.
BIG IDEA: Chemicals have properties that can be tested and change form with heat or cold and exposure to water.
Key Vocabulary: chemical, solution, suspension, observation, data, mixture, separate, properties, dissolve, filtration, crystal, evaporation, control, chemical property, acid, base, neutral, indicators, neutralization, brainstorm, communication, compare, crystallization, fair test, filter.
LINKS TO OTHER STANDARDS
3.3.b. Determine and use different tools and units appropriate for specific measurement tasks.
4.1.a. Design surveys for the collection of data and justify conclusions drawn from the data.
· Materials have properties that are directly observable; examples include state of matter, or its size, shape color or texture. Other properties can only be observed by doing something to the material (simple tests). Materials can be sorted and classified based on their testable properties.
· Some materials dissolve (disappear) when mixed in water; others accumulate on the top or at the bottom of the container. The temperature of water can effected whether and at what rate materials dissolve in it.
· Some materials, such as sponges, papers and fabrics, absorb water better than others.
· Some materials float when placed in water (or other liquids such as cooking oil or maple syrup); others sink to the bottom of the container.
· Some materials are attracted to magnets. Magnetic materials contain iron.
· The physical properties of material can be changed, but the materials remain the same. For example, a block can be cut, sanded or painted, but it is still wood.
· Heating and cooling cause materials to change from one state to another and back again. Adding heat can cause solids to melt into liquids (for example, chocolate, ice cream, butter or wax); removing heat (cooling) cab cause liquids to harden into solids (for example, hot candle wax hardens as cools).
· Adding heat can cause water to boil or evaporate into a gas in the air (for example, steam rises from heated water); removing heat (cooling) can cause water vapor to condense into liquid water (for example, warm steam hitting a cold mirror.) Water outdoors or in an open container evaporates without boiling (for example, puddles, ponds, fish tanks, etc.)
· Water may exist as a solid, liquid or gas, depending on its temperature. If water is turned into ice and then the ice is allowed to melt, the amount of water is the same as it was before freezing.
· Liquid water becomes solid water (ice) when its temperature cools to 0 degrees Celsius (32 degrees Farenheit). Warming ice to a temperature above 0 degrees Celsius causes it to melt into liquid water.
· Common household chemicals have different physical and chemical properties.
· Chemicals undergo changes in form, color or texture when they are mixed together, separated or heated.
· Some chemicals can be identified by their interaction with water, vinegar, iodine, red cabbage juice and heat.
· Different types of mixtures, such as solutions or suspensions, are created when solids are combined with water.
· Evaporation and filtration are methods for separating mixtures of solids and liquids.
· Some chemicals can be classified as acids, bases or neutral substances on the basis of their reactions with red cabbage juice.
· Observing and describing properties of materials
· Learning to perform different physical and chemical tests
· Predicting, observing, describing, and recording results of tests
· Analyzing and drawing conclusions from the results of tests
· Comparing and contrasting test results to define the properties of household chemicals so they can be identified.
· Supporting conclusions with reasons based on experiences.
· Communicating results and reflecting on experiences through writing and discussion.
· Applying previously learned knowledge and skills to solve a problem.
· Reading to enhance understanding of chemistry concepts.
· Developing proper laboratory techniques to ensure safety and avoid contamination.
ESSENTIAL QUESTIONS TO GUIDE INSTRUCTION AND ASSESSMENT:
· What properties do various chemicals have?
· Can chemicals undergo changes?
· Can chemicals change their size and shape?
· What is evaporation?
· What is filtration?
· Can chemicals break down?
· What breaks chemicals down?
· What are the proper techniques that we can use to be safe when using chemicals?
· What is a solution and how is it different from a suspension?
· How can we classify chemicals?
· How can we test chemicals?
MATERIALS AND SUPPLIES
OBJECTIVES AND GOALS (as summarized from the STC Kit, “Chemical Tests”)
Pre-unit Assessment: Thinking About Chemicals
Investigating Unknown Solids: Getting Ready
Exploring the Five Unknown Solids
Testing Unknown Solids with Water
Exploring Water Mixtures
Testing Unknown Solids with Vinegar
Testing Unknown Solids with Iodine
Testing Unknown Solids with Red Cabbage Juice
Testing Unknown Solids with Heat
Reviewing the Evidence
Identifying the Unknown Solids
Identifying the “Mystery Bag Chemical”
Testing Mixtures of Two Unknown Solids
Testing Household Liquids with Red Cabbage Juice
Using the Known Solids to Identify Unknown Liquids
· Students decide which chemical tests they will perform and in what order they will perform them to solve a new problem.
· Students analyze their recorded data, draw conclusions, and support these conclusions with their test results.
· Students record their thoughts about the significance of negative results and about chemical properties as indicators.